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Constitutional Amendment of India, in Article 368 of India Constitution

Constitution Amendment is an important topic for the SSC and Railways exams. Till now a total of 104 amendments had been made in our constitution but all are not so important so the daily gk update team had listed the important amendment that is asked in the exam like SSC Railway UPSC exams and all competitive exams.

Important Constitutional Amendment in India.

Constitution Amendment means to make a certain change in the Constitution of India.

The procedure of constitutional amendment is given in article 368 in part 20 of the Indian Constitution.

It has been held by Supreme Court in the Keshavanand Bharati Case (1973) that every provision of the constitution is amendable under the meaning of Article 368 except the basic feature of the Constitution

It is borrowed from South Africa.

The constitution can be amended by

Amendment by the simple majority of the Parliament (50%+1), and not less than 2/3 of the members of that House present for voting.

In the case of provisions that affect the federal structure, ratification by the Legislatures of at least half of the states is required before the Bill is presented to the President for his assent.

Constitution gets amended only after the President sign it.

Important Constitution Amendment of Indian Constitution.

The 1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951

Added 9th schedule to protect the land reform and the other laws included in it from the Judicial review.

7th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956

  • The reorganisation of states on a linguistic basis and abolition of class A, B, C and D states and class C states were changed to Union Territories.
  • Seat in the Rajya Sabha and in the Union and State Legislature were reallocated.
  • Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be made on a linguistic basis in 1953.

10th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961

Dadar Nagar Haveli incorporated in the Union of India as a Union Territories.

12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961

Goa and Daman and Diu incorporated in the Indian Union as the Union territory.

14th Constitutional  Amendment Act, 1962

Pondicheery is incorporated Indian Union after the transfer by France.

21th Constitutional  Amendment Act, 1967

15th language Sindhi was added as a regional language in the 8th Schedule. In the beginning, there was 14 language now there is 22 language.

24th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971

Parliament got the power to amend any part of the Constitution, including the Fundamental Right of the Constitution by amending article 368. It was made compulsory for the President to give assent to Amendment Bills when they are presented to him/her.

26th Constitutional  Amendment Act, 1971

This amendment withdrew the recognition to the rulers of Princely States and their privy purses were abolished.

31th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1973

Increased the number of members in the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545. It will not be changed until 2026 taken from the census of 1971.

Under this Act, the upper limit of representatives of the state goes up 500 to 525 and the Union territory decrease from 25 to 20

36th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1975

By this act, Sikkim becomes the 22nd state of the Indian Union.

Under the 35 Amendment Act, it was added to India.

42nd Constitutional  Amendment Act, 1976 (Mini Constitution)        

  • It was enacted during the period of internal emergency.
  • Also known as the “ Constitution of Indira”.
  • Added the 10 Fundamental Duties and change the Preamble. Socialist, Secular and integrity added in the Preamble.
  • By this amendment Act India becomes a socialist, secular and Democratic Republic.

44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978

Right to property deleted from the list of fundamental Right from article 19(f), 31(a) and put into legal right under 300(a).

52nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1985

Defection to another party after the election was made illegal. This amendment was brought during Rajiv Gandhi regime with the view to put an end to political defection. It was added the 10th Schedule to the Constitution containing the modes for disqualification in the case of defection from the Parliament or State Legislature.

55th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1987

It granted Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh which consequently becomes the 24th state of the Indian Union.

61th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1989

The voting age decreased from 21 to 18 years.

69th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1991

Delhi announced as the National Capital Region.

This Act also made provision for a Legislative assembly and a council of minister for Delhi.

71st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

Manipuri, Konkani and Nepali language were added in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

  • Constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj system.
  • Added a new part 9 to the Indian Constitution.
  • 11 Schedule was added in the Constitution.

74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992

  • Constitutional Status to the municipality.
  • Added a new part 9-A to the Indian constitution.
  • 12 Schedule was added in the Constitution.

86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002

Free and compulsory education to children between 6 to 14 years.

Added Article 21A in the Fundamental Right.

91st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003

  • The size of the Council of ministers was fixed.
  • Lok Sabha not more than 15% of the member can be made Council of Minister.
  • In both the central and the state, 15% including the PM and the Chief Minister, but in the states, there should be a minimum of 12 ministers including the CM.

92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003

Included Bodo, Dogri, Santhali and Maithili as an official language in the 8th Schedule.

93rd Constitutional  Amendment Act, 2006

Provided for 27% reservation for the Other Backward class in a government institution.

94th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2006

To provision a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and the Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.

96th Constitutional  Amendment Act, 2011

Substituted Odia from Oriya in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India

97th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2012

Provision of Part 9B in the constitution to Co-operative Societies (NGO, SHG) etc.

99th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2015

This amendment provided for the formation of a National Judicial Appointment Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 states including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was in the quash by Supreme Court in October 2015

101th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2016

Goods and Service Tax was introduced in this amendment Act.

103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019

A maximum of 10% reservation for the Economically Weaker section.

104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019

Anglo Indian remove from Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha and also the seat is increased of ST and SC in the Lok Sabha for 10 years.

 

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