The Khilji Dynasty , Delhi sultanate.
- Jallauddin Khilji founded the Khilji Dynasty.
- He was a liberal ruler and adopted the policy of religious toleration.
- He was also called as “Clemency Jalal-uddin” as he followed peace and wanted to rule without violence.
- His son-in-law and nephew was Allauddin Khalji.
- Alauddin killed Jalaluddin after the attack of Devagiri, and took the throne.
- He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from Politics. He proclaimed Kingship knows no Kinship.
- He adopted the title Sikander-e-Saini or the second Alexander.
- Alauddin annexed Gujarat (1298) Ranthambore 1301 mewar 1303 Malwa 1305, Jalor (1311).
- In Deccan, Aluddin’s army led by Malik Kafur defeated Ram Chandra ( Yadava ruler of Devagiri),
- Pratap Rudradeva (Kakatiya ruler of Warangal ), Vir Ballala 3 ( Hoysala ruler of Dwarasamudra) and Vir Pandya ( Pandya ruler of Madurai).
- Malik Kafur was awarded the title Malik Naib.
Administrative and Market reforms during Alauddin.
Alauddin issued 4 ordinances.
- Aimed at confiscation of the religious endowment and free grants of lands.
- Reorganized the spy system.
- Prohibited the use of wine.
- Nobles should not have convivial parties and they should not intermarry without his permission.
- Alauddin sought to fix the cost of all commodities.
- Introduced a market control system and collected 50% to 80% taxes on the goods.
- All goods for sale were brought to an open market called Sara-i-Adal.
- Alauddin ordered that all land was to be measured and then their share of state was to be fixed.
- The post of special officer called Mustakhraj was created for the purpose of collection of revenue.
He became the first sultan to have a permanent army. Give cash salaries to his employees and soldiers. He introduced the system of Dagh ( the branding of horses) and Chehra(descriptive roll of soldiers ).
Alauddin Khilji Padmavati
In 1303 AD Alauddin Khilji attack the Chittor, the ruler of the Chittor was Ratna Singh and his Queen was Padmavati. He attack on the Chittor for the queen Padmavati as she was very beautiful, so Alauddin wanted to marry her but he was not able to marry her because she committed Jauhar (Jump into the fire).
Malik Muhammad Jaisi wrote Padmavati book in the time of Sher Shah Suri in 1540.
Alauddin Khilji die due to Leprosy.
Construction by him
- Many forts were built by him and the most important of them was Alai fort.
- Constructed the Alai Darwaja, the entrance gate of Qutub Minar.
- Also built the Palace of a Thousand Pillars called Hazar Sultan.
- He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
He was a patron of art and learning. Amir Khusrau, the poet-musician, was his favorite court poet.
- Also known as the thousand dinari as Alauddin bought him for a thousand diner from Gujarat, he was the most trusted slave of Alauddin.
- He was the one who help the Alauddin the conquer the south India and become the first ruler of Delhi sultanate to extend his empire to South India.
- In 1316 after the death of Alauddin, Malik Kafur seized the throne.
- Before kafur died, he nominated Shihabuddin ( Alauddin’s 6 year old prince as king but imprisoned eldest prince Mubarak Khan)
- Kafur was killed by the loyalists of the royal family of Alauddin.
Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah Khilji
- Son of Alauddin Khilji.
- He gave himself the title of Khalifa.
Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah
- Gave himself the title of commander of the prophet.
- Ghazi Malik Tughaq killed him, and the Khilji Dynasty came to the end, he was the last ruler of this dynasty.