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Delhi Sultanate in India | Slave dynasty founded by Qutubuddin Aibak

Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526AD)

Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of the Muslim dominion in India. He is consider the the founder of Muslim rule in India. Mohammad Ghori’s started the Delhi Sultanate as new political entity in India.

This period can be divided into 5 Dynasty.

  1. The Slave Dynasty (1206-1290)
  2. The Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)
  3. The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
  4. The Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451)
  5. The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)

Slave Dynasty (Mamluk Dynasty) – 1206-1290

Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-1210)

  • He was the Slave of Mohammad Ghori, and he appointed him as the Governor of India. But after the death of Him, he becomes the ruler of India and founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206.
  • He was given the title Lakh Bakhsh (giver of lakhs) become he used to distribute the silver coin among his people.
  • His capital was Lahore, not Delhi.
  • He died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.

His famous construction

Two Mosques built by him.

  • Adhai din ka Jhohpra at Ajmer. It was before the Sanskrit University.
  • Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi.
  • Started the construction of Qutub Minar, in honour of famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.

Aibak was a great patron of learning and patronized writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of ‘Taj-ul-Massir’ and Fakhruddin, author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi’.

After his death, his son Aram Shah becomes the ruler, but he was not able to rule much, he was defeated by the Illtutmish in the battle of Jud.

Illtutmish (1210-1236)

  • His full name was Shams-ul-din Illtutmish.
  • He was a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and after his death, he occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211.
  • Known as the Slave of Slave, because he was the slave of Qutubuddin Aibak and he was the slave of Mohammad Ghori.
  • He was the first to get the title of Sultan.
  • Illtutmish is known as the real founder of the Delhi Sultanate as he transfers his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
  • He saved Delhi Sultanate from the attack of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refusing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz Khan was chasing as he killed his brother.
  • He introduced the silver coin known as Tanka and a copper coin known as Jital.
  • He started the Iqta System and introduced reforms in civil administration and army, which was now centrally paid and recruited this idea was taken from Muhammad Ghori.
  • He appointed Chalisa Chahalgain a group of 40 noble slaves to help him in the administration and collection of tax from different part of the kingdom.
  • He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was stated by Qutub din Aibak.
  • He patronized Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of ‘Tabaqat-i-Nasiri’.

Rukn-ud-din Feroz (1236)

  • He has the Son of the Illtutmish, but he was not capable of becoming the ruler, so Illtutmish nominated the Razia Sultana daughter of Illtutmish to be his successor but nobles and his mother Shah Turkan placed Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne.

Razia Sultana (1236-1240)

  •  She was the first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India. She was the daughter of Illtutmish.
  • But Nobles people do not want her to rules and they don’t like to work under the lady.
  • She falls in the Love with the Yakut who was from the lower caste, which nobles also do not like.
  • She further offended the nobles by her preference for an Abyssian slave Yakut and married him.
  • There was a serious rebellion in Bhatinda, Altunia governor of Bhatinda refused to accept the suzerainty of Razia. Razia accompanied by Yakut marched against Altunia.
  • However, Altunia defeat them and killed Yakut and imprisoned Razia.
  • After the Razia was married to Altunia and both of them marched towards Delhi as nobles in Delhi raised Bharam Shah (3rd son of Illtutmish) to the throne.
  • In 1240 AD, Razia becomes the victim of a conspiracy and was assassinated near Kaithal, Haryana.

Bahram Shah (1240-1242)

  • He was the third son of Iltutamish who was put on the throne by the powerful Turkish council of Chalisa Chahalgain.
  • He was killed by Turkish nobles.

Allauddin Masud Shah (1242 – 1246)

  • He was son of Ruknuddin Feroz.
  • He was disposed after Balban and Nasiruddin Mahmud’s Mother, Malika-e-Jahan, consipired against him and established Nasiruddin Mahuamud as the new Sulthan.
  • He lives like a normal person, for his living he used to make caps and sell them.

Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-1266)

  • He was the eldest son of Illtutmish.
  • Minaj-us-Siraj has dedicated his book Tabaquat-i-Nasiri to him.

Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-1287)

  • He was a member of daal Chalisa, Chahalgain.
  • After the death of Nasiruddin, Balban seat on the throne in 1266.
  • He killed all the member of Chalisa Chahalgain as dismiss it as he knows that if they were there they can plot conspiracy against him.
  • The Persian court model influenced him and he made kingship a serious profession.
  • He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi which means the shadow of God.
  • He introduced Sijda ( bow down in front of the monarch) and Paibos ( kissing the feet of the monarch).
  • Started Blood and Iron policy to rule his kingdom.
  • He gave great emphasis on justice and maintaining law and order.
  • He established the military department Diwan-i-Arz.
  • Started the Nauroz Festival in India.
  • His eldest and most loving son, Muhammad and his closest slave, Tughril were killed in fighting with Mongolians in 1285. After that Balban broke down in their memory and his kingdom and passed away.

Kaiqubad 1287-1290

  • He was the grandson of Balban who was established on the throne by Fakruddin, the Kotwal of Delhi.
  • And he was the last ruler of the Slave Dynasty.
  • But Kaiqubad was killed by Khalji Nobles.
  • And the Slave dynasty come to end in 1290.

 

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