Tribes in India are the community of the indigenous people of the, who love to live in the forest and mountains in the different geographical landscapes away from the urban areas. Due to this they are left socially away from the growing world and do not get the socio-economic and educational development. They have their own culture and festivals which also need to be conserve.
Scheduled Tribes, the tribal groups least affected by modern processes of development. Tribes are also known by the name ‘Adivasis’ in India. India also has so many tribes throughout different states. Those who do not get enough focus by the government for social and economic growth. Government tries to bring various schemes and reservations to bring them forward for economic and social growth.
The Constitution recognized tribes in India under ‘Schedule 5 and 6’ of the constitution. Hence the tribes recognized by the Constitution are known as ‘ Scheduled Tribes’. In schedule 6 the tribes of north eastern state of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram is discussed.
Scheduled Tribes in India
Article 366 (25) defined scheduled tribes as “such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this constitution”.
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs looks upon the development of the scheduled tribes in India. This ministry was established in 1999. After it’s separated from the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment with focus to provide special care to the underprivileged society of India. Its objective was to bring socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes (ST).
Article 342 of Indian constitution
In Article 342 the President has power to declare a tribal community as the scheduled tribes. In case of the state after consultation of the Governor and by public notification. specify the tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within tribes or tribal communities which shall, for the purposes of this constitution, be deemed to be scheduled tribes in relation to that state or Union Territory, as the case may be.
First the state government notified the Union government for the approval and if the Union government felt the real this tribe needed special care and socio-economic support the proposal is passed on to the President for the assent.
In exercise of the powers conferred by Clause (1) of Article 342 of the Constitution of India, the President, after Consultation with the State Governments concerned have promulgated so far 9 orders specifying the Scheduled Tribes in relation to the state and union territories. Out of these, eight are in operation at present in their original or amended form.
Distribution of Tribes in India.
About 15 percent of land area in India is occupied by tribal communities, with a wide variety of geographical landscapes, ranging from forest areas to arid regions, mountainous regions to plains and from islands and coastal areas to the interiors of landmasses.
The Scheduled Tribes are notified in 30 States/UTs and the number of individual ethnic groups, etc. notified as Scheduled Tribes is 705. The tribal population of the country, as per 2011 census, is 10.43 crore, constituting 8.6% of the total population. 89.97% of them live in rural areas and 10.03% in urban areas. The decadal population growth of the tribal’s from Census 2001 to 2011 has been 23.66% against the 17.69% of the entire population. The sex ratio for the overall population is 940 females per 1000 males and that of Scheduled Tribes 990 females per thousand males.
List of tribes in India state wise
|State||Tribes of State|
|Andhra Pradesh||Andh, Sadhu Andh, Bhagata, Bhil, Chenchus, Gadabas, Gond, Goundu, Jatapus, Kammara, Kattunayakan, Kolawar, Kolam, Konda, Manna Dhora, Pardhan, Rona, Savaras, Nakkala, Dhulia, Thoti, Sugalis.|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Sherdukpen, Singpho, Apatanis, Abor, Dafla, Galong, Momba.|
|Assam||Chakma, Chutiya, Dimasa, Hajong, Garos, Khasis, Gangte.|
|Andaman and Nicobar|| Jarwasha, Onges, Shompens, Sentinelese.|
|Bihar||Asur, Baiga, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Gond, Parhaiya, Santhals, Savar.|
|Chhattisgarh||Agariya, Bhaina, Bhattra, Biar, Khond, Mawasi, Nagasia.|
|Goa||Siddi, Varli, Dhodia, Dubia, Naikda.|
|Gujarat||Paradhi, Patelia, Barda, Bamcha, Bhil, Charan, Dhodia, Gamta.|
|Himachal Pradesh||Gaddis, Gujjars, Khas, Lamba, Pangwala, Lahaulas, Swangla.|
|Jharkhand||Kharia, Mundas, Santhals, Savar, Birhors, Bhumij.|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Gaddi, Garra, Mon, Purigpa, Sippi, Bakarwal, Balti.|
|Karnataka||Adiyan, Barda, Gond, Bhil, Iruliga, Koraga, Yerava and Patelia.|
|Kerala||Adiyan, Arandan, Kurumbas, Malai arayan, Moplahs, Uralis.|
|Manipur||Aimol, Angami, Chiru, Kuki, Maram, Monsang, Paite, Purum, Thadou.|
|Maharashtra||Katkari, Khond, Rathawa, Warlis, Bhaina, Bhunjia, Dhodia.|
|Madhya Pradesh||Baigas, Bhils, Bharia, Birhors, Gonds,Katkari, kharia, Khond, Kol, Murias.|
|Meghalaya||Jaintias Khasis, Lakher, Pawai, Raba, Chakma, Garos, Hajong.|
|Mizoram||Khasi, Kuki, Lakher, Pawai, Raba, Synteng, Chakma, Dimasa.|
|Nagaland||Mikir, Nagas, Sema, Angami, Garo, Kachari, Kuki.|
|Odisha||Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Matya, Oraons, Santhals, Rajuar|
|Rajasthan||Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas, Sahariya, Patelia|
|Sikkim||Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas.|
|Tamil Nadu||Adiyan, Aranadan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas.|
|Tripura||Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte, Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal.|
|Uttarakhand||Bhotias, Buksa, Khas, Jannsari, Raji, Tharu.|
|Uttar Pradesh||Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu, Bhotia.|
|West Bengal||Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya, Rabha, Santhals, Savar,Buxa.|