Tughlaq Dynasty, third dynasty to rule Delhi.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ( 1320-1325)
- Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq of Qaurana tribe was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
- He was the governor of Dipalpur before coming to power as Sultan.
- He built a city called Tughlakabad in Delhi.
- He thought about the farmers so he started the establishment of canals but it was completed by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
- Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq died in the collapse of the wooden palace in Tughlakabad near Delhi.
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq ( 1325-1351)
- Prince Jauna, son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325.
- He gained the title Ulugh Khan, he was the most educated of all the Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate.
- He had the biggest empire in the Delhi Sultanate period.
- Used to participate in the Holi festival.
- He created a department Diwan-w-Amir-e-Kohi for the improvement of agriculture.
- He distributed Sondhar i.e. agriculture loans advanced for extension of agriculture of barren land.
- He encouraged cash crops in the place of cereals.
The five experiments during reign of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq:
Taxation in the Daob: The Sultan increased the tax in the Doab region between the Ganges and Yamuna even if the agricultural production was not good. The Sultan created a new department of Agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi.
Transfer of Capital: The most controversial step which Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq took soon after his accession was the so-called transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri. Devagiri was thus named Daulatabad.
Introduction of Token Currency: Mohammad-Bin-Tughlaq decided to introduce bronze coins, which were to have the same value as the silver coins. He exchanged the silver coin with bronze coins but the people started forging and started duplicating this coin, due to which he was in great loss.
Proposed Khurasan Expedition: The Sultan had a vision of universal conquest. He decided to conquer Khurasan and Iraq and mobilized a huge army for the purpose. He was encouraged to do so by Khurasani nobles who had taken shelter in his court. Moreover there was instability in Khurasan on account of the unpopular rule of Abu Said. This project was also abandoned because of the change in political scenario in Khurasan.
Quarachil Expedition: This expedition was launched in Kumaon hills in Himalayas allegedly to counter Chinese incursions. It also appears that the expedition was directed against some refractory tribes in Kumaon-Garhwal region with the intention of bringing them under the Delhi Sultanate. The first attack was a success but when the rainy season set in, the invaders suffered terribly.
He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, a Turkish Slave.
Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)
- He was a cousin of Mohammad-Bin-Tughlaq.
- He adopted the policy of appeasement with the nobility, the army and theologians.
- The new system of taxation was according to the Quran.
Four kinds of taxes imposed by him.
That were Kharaj, Zalat, Jizya and Khams.
- Kharaj was the land tax, which was equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land.
- Zakat was 2% tax on property.
- Jizya was levied on Non-Muslims.
- Khams was 1/5 of the booty captured during war.
It was during the time of Firoz that Jizya became a separate tax. He used to take Jizya tax even from the Brahmans. In order to encourage agriculture, the Sultan paid a lot of attention to irrigation. Feroz repaired a number of canals and imposed Haque-i-Sharab or water tax.
Firoz tried to ban practices, which the orthodox theologians considered non Islamic. Thus he prohibited the practice of Muslim women going out to worship at graves of saints and erased painting from the places.
- Establishment of the Public work department ( PWD).
- Employment office department.
- Translation Department, translated many books during his reign.
- He was a great builder as well as established the cities of Fatehabad, Hisar, Jaunpur and Firozabad.
- The two pillars of Ashoka, one from Topra (Haryana) and other from Meerut (UP) were brought to Delhi.
- The Sultan established at Delhi, a hospital described as Dar-ul-Shifa.
- A new Department of Diwan-i-Khairat was set up to make provisions for marriage of poor girls.
However his rule is marked by peace and tranquility and credit for it goes to his Prime Minister Khan-i- Jahan Maqbul.
He had the smallest empire in the Delhi sultanate period, from Delhi to Palam.
During his period Timur Lung invaded India in 1398 and appointed Khizr Khan as his governor to rule in Delhi Sultanate.
Feroz Shah Tughlaq was the only ruler of the Sultanate who wrote his autobiography Ferze-i-Tujuk.
Feroz Shah Tughlaq died in 1388.