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Vitamins Chemical Name for competitive exams

Vitamins are the organic compounds that are required by the organism in their diet for growth and health. Vitamins are not produced in the body except D and K which in some amount we can get from the sunlight, Vitamin K is synthesised in our colon by the bacteria. Most of the vitamins we intake in  our diet. They are required in very small amounts so they are considered as micronutrients. No calories are obtained from it, but they help in our body functions such as metabolism, immunity and digestion.

Chemical name of vitamins are asked in most competitive exams. It has been seen in Railway Group D exams that in every shift, chemical names of the vitamins were asked for almost all the vitamins. In the Science section of the competitive exams, maximum questions are included from Biology. So for the exams like Railways, SSC and State level exams it is a very important topic for all the aspirants preparing for these exams.

Two Type of vitamins

Vitamins are of two types: Water soluble vitamins and Fat Soluble vitamins. Vitamins which are soluble in water are called as the water-soluble vitamins consist of the Vitamins B and Vitamins C.

Water Soluble VitaminsFat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

Water-Soluble Vitamins

We consider Vitamins B and Vitamins C as the water soluble vitamins as they easily dissolve in the water. They are not harmful when taken in excess, if they are taken in excess they dissolve with water and easily come out of our body along with the urine. Lack of water-soluble vitamins affects growing or metabolising tissues such as skin, blood, the digestive tract, and the nervous system.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E and K are the fat-soluble vitamins, they are soluble in fats. They are absorbed from the small intestine, along with the fat diet which we consume. Fat soluble vitamins are mostly stored in the liver and adipose tissues. Excess intake of the fat-soluble vitamins are harmful for the body as it causes toxic effects. The water-soluble vitamins are digested very slowly and generally they take time to dissolve in fat and get excreted from the body. Which result in various diseases like colitis, cystic fibrosis, all associated with poor absorption of these vitamins.

Chemical name of vitamins and the disease caused by the deficiency

Here is the table containing all the chemical names of vitamins that are important from an exam point of view.

VitaminChemical nameSourceDeficiency diseases
Vitamin ARetinolEgg yolk, Fish, Butter, Carrot, Broccoli, Milk, VegetableNight blindness, hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia
Vitamin B1ThiamineGround Nuts, Corn, Wheat flour,
Cabbage, Milk, Meat
Beriberi
Vitamin B2RiboflavinGreen Vegetable, Milk, Meat, gramsCracking of skin, red-dish eye, cracking of tongue
Vitamin B3Nicotinamide or NiacinEgg yolk, Mushrooms, Milk Products, sugarcaneWhitening of hair, mentally retardness
Vitamin B5Pantothenic AcidMeat, Ground Potato, TomatoPellagra
Vitamin B6PyridoxineMeat, Milk, Nut, GrainsAnaemia, skin disease
Vitamin B7BiotinMeat, liver, egg, milkParalysis, hair falling
Vitamin B9Folic AcidCitrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, pulse, liver, eggAnaemia, dysentery
Vitamin B12CyanocobalaminFish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, etc.Anaemia, Jaundice Teroile Glutemic
Vitamin CAscorbic acidGreen Chilli, Lettuce, Beans, Fresh citrus fruits
such as orange and Amla
Scurvy, Bleeding Gums
Vitamin DCalciferolFish, beef, egg yolk, liver, chicken breast and cerealsRickets and Osteomalacia
Vitamin ETocopherolVegetable oils like
Cotton seed oil,
Sunflower oil, Lettuce, Egg, Milk
Less fertility or Sterility
Vitamin KPhylloquinonePork liver oil, Leafy vegetables,
Cabbage, Broccoli, Beef and lamb.
Non-clotting of blood

Some Fact about Vitamins

  • Vitamin was invented by Sir F.G. Hopkins and the name was given by Funk.
  • Vitamin A is mainly stored in the liver.
  • Cobalt is found in Vitamin B12
  • Deficiency of calcium mainly occurs in the absence of Vitamin D.
  • Vitamin B and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
  • Vitamin A, D, E and K are the fat soluble vitamins.

Question asked in previous years

Which vitamin is found abundant in milk?

Vitamin A

Which disease is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B?

Beri-Beri

Which vitamin is not present in milk?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin is known as the beauty vitamin?

Vitamin E is a beauty vitamin that is good for the skin.

Which vitamin is lost during the process of cooking?

 Vitamin C

Which disease is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin C?

Scurvy

Which disease is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin D?

Rickets

Deficiency of which vitamin does not cause blood clotting?

Vitamin K

Which disease is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin E?

Infertility

What is the chemical name of Vitamin C?

Ascorbic Acid

What is the chemical name of vitamin D?

Calciferol

What is Vitamin K chemical name?

Phylloquinone

Which vitamin is essential for the production of RBC?

Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)

Which pigment is known as pro-vitamin A?

Beta Carotene

Which Vitamin gives immunity to our body?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin is present in citrus fruit?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin is excreted out through urine?

Vitamin B and C the water soluble vitamins are excreted out of the body through urine.

Which vitamin protects the heart and is good for it?

Vitamin E

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