Vitamins are the organic compounds that are required by the organism in their diet for growth and health. Vitamins are not produced in the body except D and K which in some amount we can get from the sunlight, Vitamin K is synthesised in our colon by the bacteria. Most of the vitamins we intake in our diet. They are required in very small amounts so they are considered as micronutrients. No calories are obtained from it, but they help in our body functions such as metabolism, immunity and digestion.
Chemical name of vitamins are asked in most competitive exams. It has been seen in Railway Group D exams that in every shift, chemical names of the vitamins were asked for almost all the vitamins. In the Science section of the competitive exams, maximum questions are included from Biology. So for the exams like Railways, SSC and State level exams it is a very important topic for all the aspirants preparing for these exams.
Two Type of vitamins
Vitamins are of two types: Water soluble vitamins and Fat Soluble vitamins. Vitamins which are soluble in water are called as the water-soluble vitamins consist of the Vitamins B and Vitamins C.
|Water Soluble Vitamins||Fat Soluble Vitamins|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)|
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
We consider Vitamins B and Vitamins C as the water soluble vitamins as they easily dissolve in the water. They are not harmful when taken in excess, if they are taken in excess they dissolve with water and easily come out of our body along with the urine. Lack of water-soluble vitamins affects growing or metabolising tissues such as skin, blood, the digestive tract, and the nervous system.
Vitamins A, D, E and K are the fat-soluble vitamins, they are soluble in fats. They are absorbed from the small intestine, along with the fat diet which we consume. Fat soluble vitamins are mostly stored in the liver and adipose tissues. Excess intake of the fat-soluble vitamins are harmful for the body as it causes toxic effects. The water-soluble vitamins are digested very slowly and generally they take time to dissolve in fat and get excreted from the body. Which result in various diseases like colitis, cystic fibrosis, all associated with poor absorption of these vitamins.
Chemical name of vitamins and the disease caused by the deficiency
Here is the table containing all the chemical names of vitamins that are important from an exam point of view.
|Vitamin||Chemical name||Source||Deficiency diseases|
|Vitamin A||Retinol||Egg yolk, Fish, Butter, Carrot, Broccoli, Milk, Vegetable||Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia|
|Vitamin B1||Thiamine||Ground Nuts, Corn, Wheat flour,|
Cabbage, Milk, Meat
|Vitamin B2||Riboflavin||Green Vegetable, Milk, Meat, grams||Cracking of skin, red-dish eye, cracking of tongue|
|Vitamin B3||Nicotinamide or Niacin||Egg yolk, Mushrooms, Milk Products, sugarcane||Whitening of hair, mentally retardness|
|Vitamin B5||Pantothenic Acid||Meat, Ground Potato, Tomato||Pellagra|
|Vitamin B6||Pyridoxine||Meat, Milk, Nut, Grains||Anaemia, skin disease|
|Vitamin B7||Biotin||Meat, liver, egg, milk||Paralysis, hair falling|
|Vitamin B9||Folic Acid||Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, pulse, liver, egg||Anaemia, dysentery|
|Vitamin B12||Cyanocobalamin||Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, etc.||Anaemia, Jaundice Teroile Glutemic|
|Vitamin C||Ascorbic acid||Green Chilli, Lettuce, Beans, Fresh citrus fruits|
such as orange and Amla
|Scurvy, Bleeding Gums|
|Vitamin D||Calciferol||Fish, beef, egg yolk, liver, chicken breast and cereals||Rickets and Osteomalacia|
|Vitamin E||Tocopherol||Vegetable oils like|
Cotton seed oil,
Sunflower oil, Lettuce, Egg, Milk
|Less fertility or Sterility|
|Vitamin K||Phylloquinone||Pork liver oil, Leafy vegetables,|
Cabbage, Broccoli, Beef and lamb.
|Non-clotting of blood|
Some Fact about Vitamins
- Vitamin was invented by Sir F.G. Hopkins and the name was given by Funk.
- Vitamin A is mainly stored in the liver.
- Cobalt is found in Vitamin B12
- Deficiency of calcium mainly occurs in the absence of Vitamin D.
- Vitamin B and Vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
- Vitamin A, D, E and K are the fat soluble vitamins.
Question asked in previous years
Vitamin E is a beauty vitamin that is good for the skin.
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
Vitamin B and C the water soluble vitamins are excreted out of the body through urine.